Estimating basal properties of ice streams from surface measurements: a non-linear Bayesian inverse approach applied to synthetic data

first_imgWe propose a new approach to indirectly estimate basal properties of ice streams, i.e. bedrock topography and basal slipperiness, from observations of surface topography and surface velocities. We demonstrate how a maximum a posteriori estimate of basal conditions can be determined using a Bayesian inference approach in a combination with an analytical linearisation of the forward model. Using synthetic data we show that for non-linear media and non-linear sliding law only a few forward-step model evaluations are needed for convergence. The forward step is solved with a numerical finite-element model using the full Stokes equations. The Frechet derivative of the forward function is approximated through analytical small-perturbation solutions. This approximation is a key feature of the method and the effects of this approximation on model performance are analyzed. The number of iterations needed for convergence increases with the amplitude of the basal perturbations, but generally less than ten iterations are needed.last_img read more

HSM 73 Holds Change of Command (USA)

first_img View post tag: holds HSM 73 Holds Change of Command (USA) View post tag: americas At the ceremony, Cmdr. Andy Berner relieved Cmdr. Pete Riebe as the commanding officer of the “BattleCats” of HSM-73.The change of command was held in conjuction with the “BattleCat” 30th anniversary ceremony.Riebe, a native of Arlington, Wash., is a 1996 graduate of the United States Naval Academy. As commander of HSM-73, Riebe led a squadron of more than 250 personnel and 11 MH-60R aircraft. During his tenure, he deployed HSM-73’s Combat Element 1 on the first-in-class deployment with USS Freedom (LCS 1) and prepared his squadron for its upcoming deployment with Carrier Air Wing 17, embarked aboard USS Carl Vinson (CVN 70).Berner, a native of Chatham Township, N.J., is also a 1996 graduate of the United States Naval Academy. At sea, his career as a naval aviator includes assignments with Helicopter Anti-Submarine Squadron (Light) (HSL) 43 aboard USS Ingraham (FFG 61) and USS Rodney M. Davis (FFG 60). He also served as the assistant air deparment officer aboard USS Wasp (LHD 1) and completed his department head tour with HSL-51 Detachment 3 as the officer-in-charge aboard USS Kitty Hawk (CV 63) and USS George Washington (CVN 73).Cmdr. Matthew Ort, a 1997 graduate of Purdue University, reported as HSM-73’s executive officer.[mappress]Press Release, June 20, 2014; Image: Wikimedia View post tag: News by topic Helicopter Maritime Strike Squadron (HSM) 73 held a change of command ceremony at Naval Air Station North Island in Coronado, Calif., June 19. Back to overview,Home naval-today HSM 73 Holds Change of Command (USA) View post tag: change June 20, 2014center_img View post tag: Naval View post tag: Navy Authorities View post tag: Command View post tag: HSM 73 View post tag: usa Share this articlelast_img read more

Watch Joni Mitchell Perform A Full Concert With Jaco Pastorius, Pat Metheny, And Michael Brecker

first_imgSometimes, a group of musicians come together to create something so beautiful, so powerful, so locked in that it must be heard to be believed. That’s the case with Joni Mitchell’s Shadows and Light live album, an album that features Mitchell’s beautiful songwriting and singing alongside some of the best jazz musicians of the era. Recorded in 1979 at the Santa Barbara Bowl during Mitchell’s Mingus tour, the band featured guitar legend Pat Metheny, bass god Jaco Pastorius, and saxophonist extraordinaire Michael Brecker, with Don Alias and Lyle Mays holding down the drums and keys respectively.The show features several of Mitchell’s classic songs like “Coyote” and “In France They Kiss on Main Street”, a cover of Charles Mingus’ “Goodby Pork Pie Hat”, and an appearance by a capalla group The Persuasions towards the end of the show. Jaco and Metheny both have featured solos, and their playing is truly impressive in showcasing the two jazz legends at the peak of their powers.Watch the full video from this amazing performance below, courtesy of YouTube user Orlando Sanchez.last_img read more

Mack’s offense shines in Lakin title win

first_imgThe McKinleyville High softball team outlasted Eureka 11-7 in what was a true barn-burner, nabbing the first Charles Lakin Tournament title in program history Friday night at the Arcata Sports Complex.Friday’s win also serves as a measure of vengeance for the Panthers, who were shut out 4-0 by Eureka in last year’s Lakin championship game.“The team did what they do best, they picked each other up and fought until the end,” McKinleyville’s head coach Shanna McCracken said. “Winning this …last_img read more

Fungi Shed Light on Deep Biological Mysteries

first_imgFungi are among the least studied and least understood organisms.  Elevated from plants to their own kingdom in 1969, they are extremely diverse yet difficult to observe, since many species cannot be grown in the lab.  The gaps in our knowledge of the fungi are being filled by new efforts to catalog them, but one of the most interesting findings may come from analysis of their genomes.  A new study shows that introns (intragenic regions) are more dynamic than previously thought. How do you pronounce fungi?  Everyone knows the singular fungus, but the plural gets a variety of pronunciations.  Dictionary.com allows for either fun•jie or fun•guy as appropriate; David Attenborough usually says fun•ghee.  Take your pick; they are still fun to look at (see cute mushrooms at Flickr.com) – but no fun if you eat the wrong ones.  Never eat a mushroom in the wild!  Every healthy, safe mushroom has a look-alike that is poisonous.  The diversity of fungi is astonishing.  Some even glow in the dark. Fungi are extremely important to the whole biosphere.  The BBC News said that “fungi, which fall between plants and animals on the tree of life, are the hidden helpers of our environment: they recycle waste and dead matter, and provide plants with water and nutrients.”  Dr. Martyn Ainsworth, a fungus researcher at the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, said, “They are absolutely fundamental to ecosystems. Fungi are really the behind-the-scenes team that are doing all the work.”  But as we know, humans have to deal with economic downsides of unwanted fungi like rusts, molds and blights.  The BBC article said that some of the most interesting findings are coming from genetics. An example was just published in Current Biology.1  Torriani et al. announced “Evidence for Extensive Recent Intron Transposition in Closely Related Fungi.”  Introns are non-coding DNA found between the “exons” – the coding parts that have to be spliced together after transcription from DNA to make messenger RNA.  Why are these introns, like spacers, transcribed, only to be clipped out?  Why does intron density vary by three orders of magnitude among eukaryotes?  These have long been mysteries.  Torriani et al. studied three closely-related species of fungi and found “74 intron positions showing intraspecific presence-absence polymorphisms (PAPs) for the entire intron.”  Even more mystifying, they believe their analysis “showed that intron gain or loss was very recent.”  They didn’t say how recent, but one instance they identified as “very recent,” i.e., not millions of years.  Variations of the word “recent” appeared 22 times in their paper.  Further, they found “direct support for extensive intron transposition among unrelated genes.”  They found a case of intron gain, and cases of intron loss.  Apparently, introns are moving around and showing ongoing changes. Their abstract dropped this bombshell: “The large number of intron positions in transient phases of either intron gain or loss shows that intron evolution is much faster than previously thought and provides an excellent model to study molecular mechanisms of intron gain.”  How can this be, if fungi were among the first in evolutionary theory to appear, and have been evolving for billions of years?  A host of new questions arise if this is true.  How can genomes maintain stability in the face of dynamic intron gains and losses?  Is this dynamism true just for fungi, or is it characteristic of other eukaryotes?  What are the introns doing?  What mechanisms create, alter or remove them? Unfortunately, we have more questions than answers at this time.  Torriani et al. did not discuss the functions of these introns; their goal was just to identify the dynamics; “the origins of introns are poorly understood,” they said.  For example, “The frequency of intron PAP at locus ID-54115 was highly variable, ranging from 0% to 90% among M. graminicola populations, but was fixed in both S1 and S2 (Figure 1C). This example illustrates a rapid intron loss, because half of the sampled populations completely lacked the intron.”    Other examples of “rapid transitions” and “rapid introgression” were described in the paper, yet other PAPs can persist in populations for a long time. The closest thing to a theory they presented was in a section entitled, “Intron Transposition Is a Major Mechanism Generating New Introns.”  While some introns remain fixed, others vary.  The authors struggled with multiple hypotheses for their data.  “The large families of highly similar intron sequences found in these genomes suggest that certain intron sequences are much more likely to be transposed than others and that specific sequence patterns may promote transposition,” they said, recalling theories of mutational hotspots.  In another instance, “intron gains can result from recombination in the intron-flanking regions among paralogs.”  Comparing intron PAPs in paralogous and duplicate genes is adding to our knowledge, but not necessarily our understanding.  Here’s a sample of the confusion: A previous study analyzing distantly related fungi revealed that some genes were hotspots for IGLs over evolutionary time [30]. Five genes in M. graminicola showed multiple intron PAPs (Table S1). To our knowledge, this is the first report of multiple intron PAPs occurring simultaneously within a single gene of a species. For all five genes, the most parsimonious explanation for multiple intron PAPs within a gene is the retention of ancestral sequences within the locus. Incomplete lineage sorting is frequent within the studied fungal clade [26] and provides a previously unrecognized mechanism for the retention of intron PAPs within species. This contrasts with multiple independent intron gains at the same intron position that were reported in Daphnia [5]. What can we conclude at this point?  “We present direct evidence of gains through intron transposition and intron transfer among paralogs,” they said, but that is like observing a process without understanding it.  Their findings at this point are only “suggesting that transient stages in the gain or loss of introns may be much more common than previously thought from the comparison of evolutionarily distant genomes.”  Other than assuming evolution and “evolutionary time,” the authors had little to say about evolution. 1. Torriani, Stuckenbrock, Brunner, McDonald and Croll, “Evidence for Extensive Recent Intron Transposition in Closely Related Fungi,” Current Biology, 17 November 2011, doi. 10.1016/j.cub.2011.10.041. It’s unwise to be dogmatic about ideas for a phenomenon under investigation like introns, but what seems highly unlikely is that these dynamic changes have been going on for billions of years.  “Living fossils” show that animals and plants can maintain their outward morphology for whatever periods of time you believe in.  Does it make sense to think that rapid changes in intron gain and loss have been going on for billions of years?  The longer the time, the more scrambled a genome would become.  If not unscrambled for all that time, that would provide evidence that introns are being regulated by a mechanism that prevents scrambling.  Either way, the idea of unguided evolution loses credibility. By bringing to the table the assumption that introns are purposeful and functional, intelligent design scientists can offer two benefits to the study of introns in fungi.  (1) A design-theoretic outlook on the problem.  As an example, they could look at introns as elements of a to-be-understood storage network system.  Previous work has shown introns as essential components of alternative splicing (5/06/2010, 4/5/2010, 2/06/08) .  In his new book The Myth of Junk DNA (Discovery Institute, 2011, available from Amazon.com) intelligent-design molecular biologist Jonathan Wells devoted a whole chapter to possible functions of introns: among them, regulators of gene expression during embryonic development, regulators of alternative splicing, storage regions for micro-RNA enhancers, and timers for transcription.  (2) A design-theoretic outlook on the ecological role of fungi.  ID scientists would not look at fungi in isolation, wasting time looking for common ancestors in some pre-vertebrate world, but see fungi as part of a grander purpose in a functional biosphere.  They would view the world as an ecological system, seeing the fungi as providers of essential services for the whole, including man – the only organism on Earth actively sequencing genomes and wondering how they work.(Visited 38 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

As Borders Struggles to Pay Its Bills, Will It Be the First Casualty in the E-Reader War?

first_img8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market Tags:#E-Books#web Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… The book-seller Borders may become the first casualty of a changing publishing industry. According to reports, the company has been delaying payments to book publishers in order to help refinance its debt. Borders is the second largest book retailers in the U.S., after Barnes & Noble, but even so, Borders says “there can be no assurance” that these refinancing efforts will be successful in keeping the company afloat.Electronista likens Borders’ downward spiral to that of Circuit City, noting the similarity between the companies’ “lack of faith” from suppliers who no longer trusted credit from the chain. According to the blog, Borders has lost $74.4 million in its most recent quarter and has lost money in most every quarter for the past two years, save during the holiday season when sales helped prop up profits.It isn’t simply a downturn in the economy or in the publishing world that has put Borders in trouble. Unlike Barnes & Noble and Amazon, Borders has not built its own e-reader hardware. The company has partnered with Kobo, a spin-off of Canadian publishing company Indigo Books & Music, and offers a branded Borders e-bookstore and reader but only via the Kobo software and hardware.As e-books have exploded in popularity, both Amazon and Barnes & Noble have found themselves well placed, and there have been rumors of Borders buying Barnes & Noble, in no small part in order gain a share of the lucrative e-book business.If Borders does go belly up, the results could have a ripple effect on the e-book industry. Kobo would clearly suffer by losing its major partner, a shame as Kobo is one of the few supporters for open-formats for publishing. But there seems to be plenty of other companies – Apple and Amazon – that have the (DRM) e-books ready to deliver. A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai…center_img audrey watters Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting Related Posts last_img read more

Wrestling No 2 Ohio State defeats No 10 Arizona State on the

Ohio State’s Micah Jordan wrestles Michael Kemerer in the dual-meet against Iowa on Jan. 21 in the Schottenstein Center. Credit: Jack Westerheide | Managing Editor for DesignNo. 2 Ohio State was able to knock off No. 10 Arizona State on Sunday to advance to 3-0 on the season.Despite being without two captains and All-Americans, senior Myles Martin and redshirt junior Kollin Moore, on Sunday, the Buckeyes were able to travel to Tempe, Arizona and escape with a win against a Sun Devils team that tried and knock the Buckeyes from the ranks of the unbeaten. Both Martin and Moore spent the weekend in Romania competing for Team USA in the U23 World Championships, and were not available for this Top-10 matchup on Sunday, but the Buckeyes held their own with a 22-17 victory. The match started out in the 125-pound division that saw redshirt freshman Brady Koontz make his debut. In a lopsided match that was quite the challenge, Koontz was able to get a lone point with an escape in a 18-1 loss to the sixth-best wrestler in the country in the 125-pound class, redshirt junior Ryan Millhof.Luke Pletcher gave Ohio State its first win in the 133-pound matchup. He was able to take a 16-6 major decision to make it just a 5-4 lead for the Sun Devils.Next up, it was another captain for the Buckeyes in Joey McKenna (141 lbs) taking Arizona State’s Corey Crooks down for a half-dozen points and ultimately winning in a shutout, 13-0.In the only matchup between two nationally ranked wrestlers the No. 2 redshirt senior Micah Jordan, was able to knock off No. 11, redshirt junior Josh Maruca of the Sun Devils. After three first-period takedowns, he added five more in the second period and won in a back-and-forth affair, 18-8 by decision.At 157 pounds, Ohio State redshirt junior Ke-Shawn Hayes went toe-to-toe with Arizona State redshirt senior Christian Pagdilao. After some back-and-forth action in the first two periods, things really heated up in the third when Hayes decided to hit the deck to begin the period, breaking free for a go-ahead takedown in the closing seconds for a 4-3 win.In the 165-pound division, Arizona State redshirt junior Josh Shields, the eighth-best wrestler in the country in his class, was able to handle Ohio State redshirt freshman Kaleb Romero to a decision victory, while in the 174-pound division, defending champion redshirt junior Zahid Valencia was able to knock off Buckeyes senior Te’Shan Campbell. The Sun Devils’ momentum would continue in the 184-pound division. Arizona State sophomore Kordell Norfleet pinned Ohio State redshirt freshman Ethan Smith, giving the Sun Devils the 17-15 lead with just two bouts left to go in the meet.Ohio State needed a momentum shifter, and redshirt sophomore Kevin Snyder came through. He jumped out to an early 6-2 lead before forcing a pair of stalling warnings after getting three takedowns, guiding  him to a 12-3 decision victory against redshirt junior Austyn Harris. With the pressure mounting for the No. 2 team in the country, redshirt freshman Chase Singletary secured the victory. He and Arizona State redshirt freshman Brady Daniel battled to a 1-1 tie after six minutes. When it mattered the most, Singletary was able to get a match-winning takedown and Ohio State snuck out of Tempe with a 22-17 win and an undefeated record still intact.The Buckeyes have now won six meetings in a row against the Sun Devils, and lead the all-time series 6-2.Next up, Ohio State travels to Las Vegas, Nevada for the Cliff Keen Las Vegas Invitational on November 30th. read more

Robben dismisses Bayern title talk

first_imgBayern Munich winger Arjen Robben has dismissed talks the club are title contenders this season.After their disappointing start to this campaign, Robben insists the Bavarians do not deserve to be talked about as contenders for the Bundesliga title.Bayern may have won the last six German league titles but the former Chelsea player says the team needs to be more consistent before they can contemplate making it a seventh consecutive title.The Bavarians have been the dominant team in German football for the last six years and ahead of this season, there was little or nothing to suggest it would be any different.The arrival of Niko Kovac from Eintracht Frankfurt as manager, has not delivered the results many hoped for, with Bayern sitting seven points behind leaders Borussia Dortmund after 11 matches.RB Leipzig, Bayern Munich, Robert LewadowskiMatch Preview: RB Leipzig vs Bayern Munich Boro Tanchev – September 14, 2019 RB Leipzig will have the chance to prove their title-winning capabilities when they host Bayern Munich today at 18:30 (CET).A 3-2 loss to Dortmund just before the international break left Kovac’s men languishing in fifth place, and Robben insists they need to focus on winning games and not talks of a seventh consecutive title.“We are not allowed to talk about titles at the moment because we are just not good enough,” he said, according to FourFourTwo.While the pressure on Kovac seems to increase on a daily basis, Robben has been impressed with the new boss since his appointment in the summer.“He is very, very ambitious and works hard, but you have to say clearly that being Bayern Munich coach is not easy.”last_img read more

Water Sewerage Team Soliciting Applications for Long Island Water Connection

first_imgFacebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsApp Facebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsApp#Bahamas, January 23, 2018 – Long Island – A team from the Water and Sewerage Corporation (WSC) flew into Long Island on Sunday, January 21, 2018.  They are on the ground soliciting applications for water connections relative to the first phase of the mains extension/water works. The team will be on Long Island for the next four days, and will repeat the exercise as additional phases of work are scheduled.Residents are advised that while the work is in progress, there will be no charge for the water connection.   A relatively small security deposit will be required.  Residents are reminded to pay close attention to the documents required to successfully complete the application process.Adrian Gibson, MPChairmanWater & Sewerage Corporation Related Items:last_img read more

AlexanderArnold extends Liverpool stay

first_imgThe Reds footballer has extended his contract with the English Premier League club after 67 appearances with the team.Trent Alexander-Arnold has been playing professionally for Liverpool in the past 18 months.And today, he signed a new contract deal that will extend his stay in the English Premier League club.“I would just say the main thing is the support from the fans that I’ve had that I probably didn’t expect to have,” he told the team’s official website.“I’ve always wanted it but never expected it. Just to have the support of the fans every single time I go out to play, to know that they’re behind you is something special.”Roberto Firmino, LiverpoolVirgil van Dijk praises Roberto Firmino after Liverpool’s win Andrew Smyth – September 14, 2019 Virgil van Dijk hailed team-mate Roberto Firmino after coming off the bench to inspire Liverpool to a 3-1 comeback win against Newcastle United.“I don’t think they understand how much they do for the team and how much we all really need them,” he added.“They’re turning up every single game – whether home, away, abroad, whether it’s freezing cold, they are still there and singing their hearts out for us, showing how much they love the club and how much they love us as players.”“It’s our chance to repay them with performances and the things we can do on the pitch,” he commented.“So, it’s probably the support from the fans that’s been the best thing for me.”last_img read more