Ash Carter, the former U.S. Secretary of Defense and current director of the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at the Harvard Kennedy School, leads the Technology and Public Purpose (TAPP) Project, an ambitious effort to swing technology toward the public good. As part of its efforts, TAPP will present its first Tech Spotlight in a virtual ceremony Thursday at 1 p.m. Three companies will be recognized for representing the project’s goal of responsible technology. These are Google’s AI Model Cards, a toolkit for ethical use of artificial intelligence; Thorn’s Spotlight tool, which helps law enforcement locate traffickers of minors; and the International Society for Stem Cell Research’s development of a practical advice kit for physicians and review boards engaged in such research. The recipients will appear in a virtual “fireside chat” following the ceremony. Carter spoke to the Gazette about the project and his vision of technology as a force for good.Q&AAsh CarterGAZETTE: The underlying idea of TAPP is that technology would be used for the public good. But how exactly would this distinction be made, and what sort of reasoning would go into it?CARTER: When I left the Defense Department in 2017 after many years of association, I asked myself how I could make a contribution to our society; that’s why I came to Harvard. I looked around and concluded that the issue of our time, to paraphrase Dr. King, is how we need to bend the arc of technology toward good. In addition to other efforts in my military campaign, including a campaign against ISIS, I tried to build bridges between the Department of Defense and the technological community, and that was a commitment that I wanted to bring over to Harvard. Technology can be a wonderful thing, but that is not automatic. It depends on us. I wanted to found a project at Harvard that would spotlight the technologists themselves, who took on the job of making sure that the overall results of their technology were good, so that we might have the benefits of technology without the hate and the darkness that we see now; that we can enjoy the benefits of productivity without making people feel obsolete or that their children don’t have a future.GAZETTE: Aside from the upcoming Spotlight, what is TAPP involved in?CARTER: The TAPP project does many things. We do research; we do training; we have seven new fellows this year who are experienced technologists who have decided to give a portion of their lives to solving technology’s dilemmas. We have worked on restoring good technology advising to Congress, whose members are by and large not technologists. But the tech spotlight is our recognition of the fact that the best shaping of technological change toward overall good occurs when technologists themselves are involved in the project.GAZETTE: It has been nearly a year since the Tech Spotlight was announced. What sort of response did you get?CARTER: We got what really was a surprising response to this. People first of all were saying, “There is really nothing like this, where technologists could feel like their efforts on behalf of public purpose could be recognized.” There were a surprisingly large number of applications, over 200 from 18 different countries. They came from digital tech, biotech, all the places where technology is bringing important change. One thing to note, which is gratifying to me, is that in addition to there being so many applicants, they came from big companies like IBM and Google but also smaller ones, startups and nonprofits. It really showed the whole spectrum of technological organizations that need to be doing good things.GAZETTE: In a piece you wrote for Wired magazine last year, you said that technology and all of objective science are caught in a “crisis of reputation.” What was this referring to?CARTER: That’s a very important question. Not only are technologists morally obligated to think about how they bend the arc of change to good, but there is something more: If they don’t make innovation work for net good, the reputation of technology will be become one of a bad force in life, one whose motives are considered amoral at best and immoral at worst. In my lifetime I would say that the reputation of technology as a bringer of good has been challenged because there have been too many opportunities where the net result has not been good. We need to claw back our reputation as agents of change that are sensitive to the world’s needs.GAZETTE: What specifically are you referring to here? Spyware, social media disinformation, bots that influence elections?CARTER: All of those things. I am talking of social media, which has not conducted itself and policed itself in an appropriate way. It remains replete with hate and darkness and lies, even as it fosters community and commerce. Artificial intelligence can be a good thing, but not if it is used in a way that is discriminatory or that uses its own data sets to make the future look like the past, or if it is used in a way that obscures human responsibility. Those are examples from the digital domain. In the biological domain I point to DNA profiling and genome editing as challenges. We want to make sure that as the digital revolution unfolds we don’t replicate the mistakes that were made before. It’s very nice that one of the organizations that we are recognizing in the Tech Spotlight [the International Society for Stem Cell Research] consists of biotechnology experts in a self-organized nonprofit who took it upon themselves [to create a guide] for the research community to describe what protocols to use that are morally important. It shows technologists taking things in their own hands, not waiting for government regulations to tell them what to do. Of the three recipients, this is the one that represents the biotechnology field; it also represents a good example of the research community.GAZETTE: That is one of the three organizations that will be recognized on Thursday. Tell me about the other two and the criteria that were used in selecting them.CARTER: Google’s AI Model Cards is first of all an example of a company that has done a lot of good but has also made some mistakes along the road. This project recognizes that AI is essentially machine-assisted human decision-making. Because the decisions made can be very consequential we need to think through who is responsible and who is accountable. So this is Google’s attempt to provide a kit of how-to’s to technologists doing their best to self-regulate.Thorn’s Spotlight takes on one of the darkest of the dark places of the digital universe, and that is the trafficking of children. It’s an example of a machine-learning tool that helps law enforcers to find the traffic and the children being trafficked — so it is an example of eliminating one of the darkest consequences of the internet. So of these three we have an example that deals with social media in the dark, a large company paying attention to the larger implications of what it does, and biotechnologists making the self-regulation that has to go along with government regulation.Interview was edited for clarity and length.
Nwosu, Omolayo add two more power-lifting goldKeno EdhowoTeam Nigeria’s good run at the ongoing 2016 Paralympic Games in Rio, Brazil continued yesterday with Lauritta Onye winning gold in Shot Put. It is Nigeria’s first gold medal from the track and field.Competing in the women’s shot put f40 event on the Day-four of the Rio Paralympics, Onye first heaved 7.83m that saw her break her world record of 7.72m set at the IPC World Athletics Championships in Doha, Qatar in 2015. Her second throw was 7.54m. She however went one centimeter further on her third attempt.Onye’s fourth attempt of 8.40m sent Team Nigeria camp into jubilation mood as it secured the fifth gold medal for the country.Onye’s medal is Nigeria’s seventh at the Rio Paralympic Games.Also yesterday, Ndidi Nwosu defeated the defending champion to win women’s -73kg Powerlifting event gold medalNwosu was set for the bronze medal before she stepped up in her very last attempt, lifting 140kg to equal the Paralympics Record (PR) and usurp France’s Souhad Ghazouani for the gold.Another Nigerian, Bose Omolayo broke her own World Record (WR) and set a new one of 138kg to win gold medal.Earlier, Team Nigeria’s captain, Lucy Ejike, broke the Paralympic and world record three successive times, to win the women’s -61kg event in power-lifting. Her successful attempt at 136.kg on Sunday set a new Paralympic record and world record.Ejike went on to set a bigger mark of 138kg, before lifting a massive 142kg.Another power-lifter, Paul Kehinde, had earlier at the weekend given Team Nigeria her second gold medal of the Games. Kehinde in the -65kg men’s category, lifted 218kg to beat his rivals to the gold medal.His gold came after Roland Ezuruike had on Friday won Nigeria’s first gold in Rio, also in power-lifting.China’s Peng Hu (200kg) finished second, while Egypt’s Shaaban Ibrahim (193kg) won the bronze medal.Latifat Tijani won silver in the women’s power-lifting -45kg on Friday, with Esther Oyema adding another silver in the women’s power-lifting -55kg category on Saturday.As at press time last night, Nigeria was listed tenth on the medals table with six gold, two silver and one bronze.Share this:FacebookRedditTwitterPrintPinterestEmailWhatsAppSkypeLinkedInTumblrPocketTelegram
Louis van Gaal is no more at Manchester United.After a campaign largely filled with frustration over performances – despite still getting their hands on the FA Cup trophy – the club called time on the Dutchman’s three-year contract 12 months early.Jose Mourinho is the man expected to take over and while excitement is building, there are a few people nervously awaiting his arrival.Van Gaal may have been short of support in his final months at Old Trafford, but if there’s one aspect of his management deserving of credit, it’s the dedication he showed to developing United’s youth players during his two seasons at the club.The 64-year-old handed 14 academy players their senior debut, with the likes of Jesse Lingard and Marcus Rashford became key members of the first team.And there is worry over what Mourinho’s arrival means for young striker Rashford, particularly with Zlatan Ibrahimovic being linked with a move.Read what a selection of worried fans have had to say below… 1 Rashford in action during the Red Devils’ FA Cup semi-final victory over Everton
Plants and animals sometimes keep PhD physicists wondering how they do what they do.Fluid dynamics in moss. A humble little desert moss shown on PhysOrg has a “swiss army knife” of water collection tricks, allowing it to thrive in its harsh environment. Tiny barbed hairs on the leaf tips, called awns, not only collect moisture right out of the air, but send droplets into the leaves “at impressive speeds.” A video clip shows how this miniature water collection and transport system works. Fluid dynamics experts at BYU are thinking of applications. New Scientist sees a future in clean water collection using a similar mechanism. “The idea is to trap pure water from air.”Electrical engineering in bees. Why are so many insects and spiders hairy? It might be they’re covered with electric field sensors. A paper in PNAS examines the antennae and hairs of bumblebees and concludes that the hairs detect weak electric fields. Because the hairs can also sense particles touching them, “This interaction raises the possibility that particle velocity information and electrical information, and interactions between them, can be encoded by a single hair.” It also raises the possibility that “electroreception is widespread in arthropods, fulfilling functions beyond the detection of floral electric fields.”Power generation in fish. Imagine driving a toy car with electricity supplied by a torpedo ray. Japanese scientists demonstrated this feat by attaching electrodes to the electrical generation organ of such a fish, and ran a continuous current for over a minute when they supplied the electric organ with acetylcholine. When thinking about clean sources of power, why not use the best system known?Scientists from the RIKEN Quantitative Biology Center (QBiC) in Osaka began work to develop a new type of electricity generator, based on the knowledge that electric rays known as torpedoes can beat other systems by generating electric power with near 100% efficiency. The torpedo has electric organs with densely-aligned membrane proteins that convert the chemical energy of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into ion transport energy, and a nervous system that controls the whole process.Hi-tech weaponry. An even more dramatic example of power generation shows how an electric eel can leap out of the water and deliver a stunning shock to an attacker. An account of eels attacking horses in the Amazon was thought to be a tall tale from explorer Alexander von Humboldt in 1807. Now, Kenneth Catania of Vanderbilt University has shown that the electric animals can increase their stun power by leaping out of the water toward an attacker (paper at PNAS). Watch the video clip on PhysOrg for demonstration. Nature News says that a mystery remains; how can the eel electrocute its victim without shocking itself.Speed plants. We don’t think of plants moving, but some species can move really fast. The “popping cress” hurls its seeds with an acceleration of 0 to 10 meters per second in half a millisecond, PhysOrg reports. “Explosive shatter of these seed pods is so fast that advanced high-speed cameras are needed to even see the explosion.” How does it do it? Scientists at Max Planck were surprised that dehydration is not involved, as previously believed; the plant can hurl its seeds even when moist. The secret is in the curl of the fruit wall, that makes it react like a ‘snap bracelet.’ You can watch the action in a short embedded video clip.Eye information processing. “At any given moment, the neuronal circuits in the brain receive and process sensory information that permits us to perceive and interact with the environment,” an article on Science Daily begins. “Yet it remains unclear how the visual brain processes natural stimuli.” An international team studied the excitatory and inhibitory responses of synaptic inputs and found a “push and pull” behavior between them, that helps the eye distinguish between natural and artificial stimuli.Quantum mechanical DNA. The weird world of quantum mechanics operates in DNA, the molecule of life, reports PhysOrg. When it comes time for the strands to separate for transcription, “sound-like bubbles whizzing around” promote the initial split. These bubbles “whiz around like bullets in a shooting gallery,” a team member at the University of Glasgow said, at frequencies billions of times higher than audible to humans or dogs. Delocalizing waves, a quantum mechanical effect, appears now to break the weak bonds between the two strands, allowing transcription and replication enzymes in to do their work.Animal intelligence: Watch the videos in this piece on The Conversation by Louise Gentle. You can see an octopus solving a puzzle, a squirrel doing Mission Impossible, and a “Houdini” honey badger employing tools in a variety of ways to get out of its enclosure. “Humans like to think of themselves as the most intelligent organisms on the planet,” Gentle writes, “so we are always surprised when animals appear clever and often outwit us.”Who taught these organisms how to take command of the laws of physics? Rocks obey the law of gravity by falling mindlessly. It takes design to lift oneself off the ground for controlled flight. It makes no sense to imagine evolution outfitting completely unrelated animals like electric eels and bumblebees with electrical engineering. A wise Creator, however, wrote the book on physical laws. He surely knows how to apply them to creatures that He made for His own pleasure and glory. (Visited 27 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Your old furnace or boiler is gasping its last breath and it’s time to pull the trigger on something newer, more reliable, and more efficient. How do you quickly size the new equipment?If you leave the sizing calculations to HVAC contractors, most would replace the old furnace with equipment that has a comparable output rating. That would guarantee that you wouldn’t get cold, but at least 19 times out of 20, that would be a mistake. ENERGY CONTENT OF FUELS Natural gas: 1,000 BTU/cu. ft.Propane: 91,333 to 93,000 BTU/gallonFuel oil: 138,700 to 140,000 BTU/gallonKerosene: 120,000 to 135,000 BTU/gallon Methods for calculating a building’s heat loadThat’s the target for sizing equipment. But to get to this target, it’s important to come up with a reasonably accurate design heat load number.You could measure up the windows and walls, estimate the U-factors of different building assemblies, and run an I=B=R load calculation on the whole house, or you could even run a Manual J calculation. But those methods take time, and it’s easy to make errors when estimating the U-factors of components of an older house. It’s human nature to err to the high side when in doubt, which is also a mistake.Fortunately, if you have access to historical fuel purchase history, you don’t have to guess. What about thermostat settings?If the average indoor temperature was kept substantially below 68°F, you can account for that fact by dropping the degree-day base.For example, if you normally keep the thermostat at 62°F rather than 68°F, subtract 6 F° from the temperature bases to get the BTU/degree-hour constant, but add 6 F° to the total heating degrees when you run the final number to be sure it meets code when sizing the equipment. Equipment sizingUnless there is an obvious large error factor that skews the result badly, move on:For sizing the equipment, use the ASHRAE 1.4x sizing factor:1.4 x 29,115 BTU/hr = 40,761 BTU/hr (with a 65°F balance point assumption)1.4 x 31,400 BTU/hr = 43,960 BTU/hr (with a 60°F balance point assumption)If reality happens to be the 60°F balance point — the 31,400 BTU/h implied load number — then using the 1.4x multiplier on the lower 65°F implied load of 29,115 BTU/h yields about 40,761 BTU/h, in which case you’re even covered for the higher implied load with ample margin. Since older equipment probably isn’t fully as efficient as it was when it was new, equipment rated at 40,000 BTU/h should be good enough.But if you got nervous and sized it at 50,000 BTU/h of output, it would still be only ~1.7x oversized for the lower 29,115 BTU/h estimate, which means it would hit its AFUE efficiency number (even though it would be bigger than ideal). From a practical point of view, any heating appliance with an output between 40,000-50,000 BTU/h will be fine.The highest comfort occurs when it’s cold out, when the equipment is actually running and delivering steady heat — rather than running for a while and overshooting the thermostat, with a long cooling off period between cycles. If the new equipment is multi-stage or modulating, it’s best if the lowest stage output is well under the 29,000 BTU/h load, so that the firing range is meaningful.With boilers, use only the DOE output rating for the equipment; ignore the net I=B=R numbers. The fuel use calculation has the distribution and idling losses included — they can’t be separated out. (There are other factors that come into play when dealing with modulating condensing boilers, but that’s a topic for another day.) If the replacement equipment will be a heat pump, consult the extended temperature range tables for its output at the 99% design temperature.Whatever the equipment type, have the load numbers and minimum / maximum output numbers in hand before talking to an HVAC contractor. Three times larger than necessary? What does that mean?A building’s heat load grows (approximately) linearly with the difference between indoor and outdoor temperatures (otherwise known as the delta-T). According to building code, a heating appliance is correctly sized when it is sufficient to cover the difference between 68°F and the outdoor design temperature.For example, consider a house in Washington, D.C. (Climate Zone 4), where the outdoor design temperature is 20°F. If your furnace is oversized by a factor of 3, you could heat the house in a location with a delta-T that was three times larger than your actual delta-T of 48 F° — in other words, in a location with a delta-T of 144 F°. With that much capacity, the heating system won’t lose ground until the outside temperature drops below -76°F — an outdoor temperature not seen in Washington, D.C. since the last ice age!That’s ridiculous, of course — but oversizing a furnace by a factor of 3 is the norm rather than the exception. RELATED ARTICLES Saving Energy With Manual J and Manual DHow to Perform a Heat-Loss Calculation — Part 1How to Perform a Heat-Loss Calculation — Part 2Calculating Cooling LoadsWhen Do I Need to Perform a Load Calculation?We Are the 99% — AND the 1%Understanding Energy UnitsQ&A: Recommendations for Manual J software? Dana Dorsett has lifelong interests in energy policy, building science, and home efficiency. He is currently an electrical engineer in Massachusetts. You can calculate a building’s heat load in 15 minutesYou have instrumentation already in the house that is measuring the heat load: namely, the existing heating equipment. The way to use it for measurement purposes is:Take a mid- to late-winter fuel bill, and note the exact dates covered by the bill — the fill-up dates or the meter-reading dates.Look for a specification label on your furnace or boiler that includes the input BTU/h rating and the output BTU/h rating for your equipment.Download base 65°F or base 60°F heating degree-day spreadsheets covering those dates for a nearby weather station from a website called DegreeDays.net.Look up the 99% outside design temperature (sometimes called the “heating 99% dry bulb temperature”) for your location from a website — for example, from an online document called Manual J Outdoor Design Conditions for Residential Load Calculation.Now you have enough information to estimate your building’s heat load with reasonable accuracy, independent of the house construction details.For example, assume that a house in Washington, D.C. (where the outdoor design temperature is 20°F) used 182 therms of natural gas between January 6 and February 8.If the gas furnace nameplate shows an input rating of 110,000 BTU/h and an output rating of 88,000 BTU/h, you can use those numbers to determine the furnace’s thermal efficiency — in this case, 80%.Multiply the input fuel amount by the efficiency of the equipment to determine how much heat was delivered to the building. Error factorsThe heat load calculated from the difference in temperature from the balance point isn’t a perfectly linear BTU/degree-hour constant as implied by this calculation method. There is an offset related to the internal heat sources like electrical plug loads and warm bodies. But the error from the difference in slope between the linear approximation from a presumptive balance point method shown here and other methods — for example, an I=B=R linear model (based on the indoor temperature) or a more nuanced Manual-J calculation — doesn’t induce a large error when wintertime data are used.If the same heating fuel is also used for domestic hot water, this calculation method exaggerates the implied load numbers, since some of that fuel was used by the water heater and sent down the drain. But some of the space heating came via solar gains that would reduce the implied load numbers. These errors tend to balance each other out to a greater or lesser degree.If you spent 10 days on the beach in Belize during that period, with your home thermostat set to 50°F, use a different billing period.If an auxiliary heating appliance was being used on a regular basis (say, a wood stove or a ductless minisplit), this calculation method will be too far from reality to be useful. If that’s the case, go back to I=B=R or Manual-J.In some cases, your heating equipment may be old, decrepit, and not performing very near its original name plate efficiency. That would skew the calculated number to something higher than reality, but it would have to be pretty far off to make a meaningful difference. If that’s the case, calculate it using some lower efficiency. Even a 100-year-old steam boiler is usually still delivering at least 55% efficiency, and often 65-70%. Furnaces are routinely oversizedMost of the installed heating equipment in the U.S. is oversized. In fact, most equipment has a heat output that is between 2 and 4 times the heating load.There are valid reasons to oversize the equipment a bit, but not by 2 to 4 times the load. Oversizing on that scale results in lower comfort and lower efficiency. Most people want enough capacity to cover somewhat colder temperatures “just in case” there is a cold snap or record low temperatures, or if they need to keep the house at 78°F for a frail elderly parent.With the average installed equipment being 3 times oversized, that means you’re covered. But what are the consequences of this type of equipment oversizing? Oversizing a little is OKThe AFUE testing protocol (used to determine furnace efficiency) presumes an oversizing factor of 1.7 times, which still gives a large margin for colder weather — more than covering the absolute record low temperatures in most locations. When a furnace is oversized by a factor of 1.7, it isn’t so oversized that it impacts efficiency, but that much oversizing is really too much for multi-stage furnaces. A typical two-stage condensing gas furnace has a turn-down ratio of less than 2:1. With most of these furnaces, the low-fire output is still 60% or more of the high-fire output.When a furnace with a low-fire rating of 60% is oversized by a factor of 1.7, you could cover 99% of the building’s heating needs at low fire. You might as well hard-wire the furnace so that it never steps up to high-fire mode.For comfort and efficiency, ASHRAE recommends that heating equipment be sized at 1.4 times the design heat load.At 1.4 times oversizing, the house in the example above would have its heating load fully covered at a temperature difference of (1.4 x 48 F°) = 67 F°. With a delta-T of 67 F°, the heating system is adequate when the outdoor temperature drops to (68°F – 67 F°) = 1°F, which is 19 F° colder than the 99% outside design temperature. But that’s an outdoor temperature that may actually occur a few times over the 15-to-25 year lifecycle of the heating equipment (but not every year). When that happens it’s only for brief periods of time — short enough that the thermal mass of the house keeps it from losing much ground. So there is usually no comfort problem. Expect pushback from contractorsHVAC contractors have become accustomed to installing oversized equipment, and may even think that equipment really needs to be that big. But you don’t have to follow them down the rabbit hole.Have confidence in your fuel use numbers. This calculation method is better than an estimate; it’s a measurement.If you push back, some contractors will balk or refuse to bid equipment that small. (Good riddance!) Others will want you to sign a waiver. (OK — but really?!)Still others will understand that a lipstick-on-mirror fuel-use calculation is sufficiently close to reality that they’ll just go with it if you direct them to.Typical arguments heard from contractors are rules of thumb such as: “It needs to be at least 25 BTU/h per square foot of living space. Your house is 2,400 square feet, so that’s 60,000. Let’s bump it to 75,000 just in case it gets cold out.”Which reliably oversized most houses by at least 2x. Or: “It needs to be at least 90,000 BTU/h or it’ll take forever to return from overnight setback.”Which is almost never true.Recent feedback from a contractor insisting on a 100,000 BTU/h condensing boiler for a house with a design heat load under 30,000 BTU/h (based on fuel use calculations and later verified by Manual-J) went, “It needs to be at least 100,000 BTU/h or it’ll take forever to bring the house up to temperature after you’ve been out of power for a few days.”Out of power for days? How often does that happen each winter (or decade)?Every day, contractors come up with new creative reasons for oversizing. But with the load calculation in your back pocket, you don’t have to accept these arguments. Comparing 65°F HDD calculations with 60°F HDD calculationsAt this point, you may be thinking, “Why would the calculated heating load for a house with 2×4 walls (29,155 BTU/h) be lower than the calculated heating load for a house with 2×6 walls (31,400 BTU/h)?”The short answer is, “Both calculations assume that you’ve used the same amount of fuel over the average outdoor temperatures during the period in question, which yields a higher BTU per degree-hour constant for the house with 2×6 walls.”Put another way, if the better-insulated house used the same amount of fuel during the same weather conditions, its load is going to be higher when it’s really cold out. If two identical houses were built, one with 2×4 walls and the other with 2×6 walls, the 2×6 house should have used less fuel at the average outdoor temperature over the period, not the same amount of fuel. But if different 2×4 and 2×6 houses use the same amount of fuel, the incremental heat requirement of the 2×6 house per degree will be bigger. When you then use that bigger load per-degree constant to predict the load at the outside design temperature, the calculation results in a bigger number. To calculate the net amount of heat that was delivered into the ducts (or into the heating pipes if we are talking about a boiler), take the number of therms indicated on your fuel bill and multiply it by the equipment efficiency:182 therms x (88,000/111,000) = 145.6 thermsThen multiply therms by 100,000 (the number of BTU per therm) to convert therms to BTU:145.6 therms (x 100,000 BTU/therm) = 14.56 million BTU (MMBTU).Next, download and sum up the daily base 65°F heating degree days (HDD) for the nearest weather station — in this case, from station KDCA: Washington National Airport, Virginia — from the DegreeDays.net web site for the period of January 6 through February 7. (Include only one of the meter-reading dates, not both.) In this example, the sum comes to 937.7 HDD-65°F. (See Image #2, below.)Next, download and sum the date for base 60°F. The result is 772.9 HDD-60°F. (See Image #3, below.)14.56 MMBTU / 937.7 HDD is 15,527 BTU per degree-day. With 24 hours in a day, that’s an average of 647 BTU per degree-hour at a balance point of 65°F.14.56 MMBTU / 772.9 HDD is 18,838 BTU per degree-day, and with 24 hours in a day that’s an average of 785 BTU per degree-hour at a balance point of 60°F.A balance point of 65°F with design temp of 20°F is a difference of 45 F° degrees, and the implied heat load is then 45 F° x 647 BTU/F-hr = ~29,115 BTU/hr.At a balance point of 60°F there are only 40 F° heating degrees, and the implied load is 45 F° x 785 BTU/F-hr = ~31,400 BTU/hr.That’s a range of about 8% between the calculation based on 65°F heating degree days and the calculation based on 60°F heating degree days. Which is closest to reality?It depends. Most 2×4 framed houses will have a balance point close to 65°F, most 2×6 framed houses will balance closer to 60°F. But unless it’s a superinsulated house, it’s likely balance point is somewhere in that range. What’s the 99% outdoor design temperature?For a particular location, the “99% outdoor design temperature” is the temperature which is exceeded for 99% of the hours in an average year. In other words, only 1% of the hours in a year are colder than the 99% outdoor design temperature. Heating appliances can be sized to meet a building’s heat load at the 99% outdoor design temperature or at the 99.6% outdoor design temperature. Building codes in the U.S. stipulate that every room be capable of being automatically heated to a minimum of 68°F at the 99% temperature bin for that location, making the 99% approach more relevant than the 99.6% approach. So it’s useful to know the “99% outdoor design temperature” for your location.
Rafael Nadal of Spain shouts during his singles tennis match against David Goffin of Belgium at the ATP World Finals at the O2 Arena in London, Monday, Nov. 13, 2017. (AP Photo/Kirsty Wigglesworth)PARIS — Former French minister for health and sport Roselyne Bachelot was ordered to pay 10,000 euros ($11,800) in damages to Rafael Nadal on Thursday after accusing him of doping.In March last year, Bachelot said on a French television show that Nadal’s seven-month injury layoff in 2012 was “probably due to a positive doping test.”ADVERTISEMENT Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH Bachelot was also ordered by the French tribunal to pay Nadal a suspended fine of 500 euros ($590).In April 2016, Nadal wrote to the president of the International Tennis Federation asking for all of his drug-test results and blood profile records to be made public. In the same letter, he said of Bachelot: “It is unacceptable and mostly unfair that someone that should have knowledge of sports to a certain point and degree can publicly say something like this with no proof or evidence.” Japan ex-PM Nakasone who boosted ties with US dies at 101 Read Next Stronger peso trims PH debt value to P7.9 trillion Ex-President Noynoy Aquino admits contracting pneumonia PLAY LIST 01:28Ex-President Noynoy Aquino admits contracting pneumonia00:50Trending Articles00:57First day of ex-Malaysia PM Najib Razak’s 1MDB corruption trial wraps up01:37Protesters burn down Iran consulate in Najaf01:47Panelo casts doubts on Robredo’s drug war ‘discoveries’01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games View comments CPP denies ‘Ka Diego’ arrest caused ‘mass panic’ among S. Tagalog NPA Kris Aquino ‘pretty chill about becoming irrelevant’ MOST READ Kammuri turning to super typhoon less likely but possible — Pagasa Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC Nadal, who has won 16 Grand Slam titles, filed a defamation suit against Bachelot in Paris.The Spanish player said he will donate the money to a non-governmental organization or a foundation in France.“When I filed the lawsuit against Mrs. Bachelot, I intended not only to defend my integrity and my image as an athlete but also the values I have defended all my career,” Nadal said in a statement.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSSEA Games: Philippines picks up 1st win in men’s water poloSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutNadal said he wanted to keep public figures “from making insulting or false allegations against an athlete … without any evidence or foundation and to go unpunished.”He said the lawsuit was never motivated by money. Kings of the NCAA Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. LATEST STORIES QC cops nab robbery gang leader, cohort
Joshua Pacio connects with a punch. Photo by Tristan Tamayo/INQUIRER.netMANILA, Philippines—There’s no controversy this time around.After a controversial decision in their first fight, Joshua Pacio didn’t leave anything to chance and knocked Saruta out cold to reclaim the gold in the co-main event of ONE: Roots of Honor Friday at Mall of Asia Arena.ADVERTISEMENT Philippine Arena Interchange inaugurated DA eyes importing ‘galunggong’ anew Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next View comments Private companies step in to help SEA Games hosting The first time they met in January, Saruta defeated Pacio for the belt in a split decision win that drew the ire of ONE chief Chatri Sityodotong, who immediately ordered a rematch.But after that decisive victory by the Team Lakay bet, another rematch doesn’t look like the best plan anytime soon.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSPalace wants Cayetano’s PHISGOC Foundation probed over corruption chargesSPORTSSingapore latest to raise issue on SEA Games food, logistics“That was definitive, if you get knocked out like that, you got to work your way back up,” said Sityodtong. “Joshua was the clear winner so I don’t see a third unless Saruta works his way up.”Pacio and Saruta were locked in a tight contest with neither fighter getting control of the other. Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. ONE CEO believes Joshua Pacio won the fight PLAY LIST 00:52ONE CEO believes Joshua Pacio won the fight02:18Alvarez ready to take risk vs Folayang, looks to end clash by ‘knockout or submission’00:50Trending Articles02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss LATEST STORIES Panelo: Duterte ‘angry’ with SEA Games hosting hassles SEA Games hosting troubles anger Duterte MOST READ Cayetano: Senate, Drilon to be blamed for SEA Games mess GALLERY: Filipino fighters shine in ONE: Roots of Honor Saruta scored an early knock down in the fight but it was Pacio who had the advantage in terms of striking with his constant spinning heel kicks backing the Japanese off.Pacio upped his striking in the fourth round connecting with stiff right straight and following it up with a head kick.The fight eventually came to massive ending when Pacio’s right knee cracked Saruta’s left temple 2:43 into the fourth round.“If you look at Pacio, he was very tentative, I knew he had the KO power but truth be told I was impressed with Saruta,” said Sityodtong. “He wanted to win the fight, he had the better exchanges.”ADVERTISEMENT Ethel Booba twits Mocha over 2 toilets in one cubicle at SEA Games venue Hontiveros presses for security audit of national power grid
But to examine the broader question of whether balance helps a team, we need to see if our measure of balance — specifically, the absolute difference between a team’s index and the league average of 100 on both offense and defense — tracks meaningfully with a team’s future success after controlling for its overall talent level.To that end, I computed the same offensive and defensive indices as above for each team on July 31 of every season since 1986, when the trade deadline was permanently moved to that date (except this year, when the commish moved it to Aug. 1 because July 31 fell on a Sunday). As a first pass, I checked whether a change in a team’s balance correlated with improved play over the remainder of the regular season — and the relationship was practically non-existent.2In statistical parlance, the r between the change in a team’s balance from before the trade deadline to after and its change in winning percentage was 0.018. I then did the same thing but for eventual playoff teams only … and got the same result.3This time, the correlation was -0.009. Finally, I looked at whether a playoff-bound team’s balance had any real bearing on its World Series odds after controlling for its talent, and again, a team’s balance had no significant effect. (If anything, less balanced playoff teams have tended to win the World Series more often since 1986, though that finding is likely just noise.)In other words, balance isn’t something for a team to seek at the deadline — talent is. Teams should be wary about dealing from a strength to improve a weakness if it doesn’t leave them in a better overall place than where they started. Even under the bright lights, a run saved is still worth the same as a run scored, balance be damned.Check out our latest MLB predictions. One school of thinking about the MLB trade deadline, which passes at 4 p.m. Eastern time, is that teams should address their weaknesses and become more balanced in preparation for the stretch run. The notion, which we’ve taken as a given around these parts in the past, is that sacrificing in some area of strength (whether on offense, pitching or defense) to plug a weakness makes a team less vulnerable in the postseason. But is that true? Certainly teams should patch up their weaknesses if it doesn’t mean taking away from their strengths, but all else being equal, balance for its own sake may not necessarily help improve a team’s chances.It’s easy to look at a team’s offense/defense balance — defined as how closely matched a team’s run-scoring and run-prevention capabilities are. We can quantify the clubs most in need of it at the deadline this season by indexing each team’s (park-adjusted) runs scored and allowed per game against the league average. In the chart below, the teams in the bottom right-hand corner are the most balanced — they’re good at both scoring and preventing runs1In this case, a lower defensive index is better because it means a team allowed fewer runs. — but those in the adjacent quadrants have a weakness in one of the two categories. (Those in the top left are just bad at everything.)
OSU junior forward Jae’Sean Tate (1) looks for an open teammate during the Buckeyes home opener against North Carolina Central. The Buckeyes won 69-63. Credit: Ashley Nelson | Sports DirectorThe Ohio State men’s basketball team opened up its 2016-17 home schedule on Monday night against the North Carolina Central Eagles out of the Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference. In front of a crowd that seemed to be less than the 9,787 reported people in attendance, the Buckeyes underwhelmed in what many thought would be an easy blowout victory.OSU won Monday night’s affair versus the Eagles 69-63 in what was a flashback to the 2015-16 team that strung together several games of uninspired play. OSU was still able to come away with a victory in a game that looked similar to last season’s early losses to Texas-Arlington and Louisiana Tech. However, there were hardly any positives other than it was a win. The performance was so discouraging that junior forward Jae’Sean Tate offered an apology to the Buckeye faithful after the game.“We didn’t come ready to play today,” Tate said. “This one is on us, as the players. We didn’t come out like we had practiced. I apologize to Buckeye Nation and we’re going to try our best to go out there on Thursday and play as hard as we can.”After Friday’s season-opening victory in Annapolis, Maryland, against Navy, OSU coach Thad Matta said that there were times in which he could tell his players weren’t “thinking the game.” Monday at the Schottenstein Center was a bit more concerning to Matta, who said he couldn’t pinpoint the reason behind the absence of a competitive mindset.“We, for whatever reason, we weren’t thinking. Some things happened that I’ve never seen happen before in terms of 38 practices,” he said. “We weren’t mentally and physically very tough. We obviously got to get that corrected.”In the Navy game, the Buckeyes struggled at times to figure out the Midshipmen’s zone defense. Redshirt junior guard Kam Williams, sophomore point guard C.J. Jackson and redshirt junior center Trevor Thompson all came off the bench and provided a spark that ignited a sluggish offense.On Monday against NC Central, the difficulties against a zone were still present, but the bench was not there to boost the OSU attack. Williams scored 23 points in the first game of the season, including 5-for-6 from 3-point land. It took him until 6:24 remaining in the second half for him to cash in his first 3-point bucket of the game. He scored just nine points in 31 minutes.Thompson grabbed seven rebounds and scored six points in 17 minutes and was a factor in the second half. However, the amount of dispassionate play on defense left much to be desired after 40 minutes.Junior forward Keita Bates-Diop followed up his 14-point, 14-rebound game against Navy with just nine points and two rebounds on Monday night. After the game, Matta said that Bates-Diop had been out of practice for the past two days with an illness, which contributed to his lack of production.Without Bates-Diop and senior forward Marc Loving, who sat with foul trouble for much of the game, OSU couldn’t produce a lot of offense against several zone and man-to-man looks NC Central threw at the Buckeyes.“We did some things that were so uncharacteristic … we never had that flow,” Matta said. “We got work to do.”With OSU up 12, Jackson made a steal off of an inbounds pass and patiently waited for Williams to dart down the lane. Williams bobbled the pass and his shot was blocked, which turned into a transition three on the other end. NC Central guard Patrick Cole then hit another three on the next possession, trimming the lead to six for OSU. Cole torched the Scarlet and Gray with 26 points on 10-for-19 shooting.Another major factor was free-throw shooting. OSU shot just 11-for-23 from the line, including 1-for-4 down the stretch.Jackson played more minutes than sophomore starting point guard JaQuan Lyle for a second straight game. Lyle had a minus-six plus-minus rating while Jackson had a plus-three. Jackson had eight assists compared to just two from Lyle.Matta said that before Thursday’s game against Providence, there could be a few changes in the lineup. For Tate, he knows that OSU can’t win many games based on its play on Monday.“We just got to make sure it’s not a repeat of last year. We can’t be lackadaisical. We got to be the first team to punch the other in the mouth.”